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Question-1. What is a signal in the context of communication systems?

Answer-1: A signal is a function that conveys information about a phenomenon.

Question-2. What are the two main types of signals?

Answer-2: There are two main type of signals: Analog signals and digital signals.

Question-3. What is an analog signal?

Answer-3: An analog signal is a continuous waveform that represents information by varying its voltage or frequency.

Question-4. What is a digital signal?

Answer-4: A digital signal is a discrete waveform that represents information using binary code (0s and 1s).

Question-5. What is the difference between analog and digital signals?

Answer-5: Analog signals have infinite possible values within a range, while digital signals have discrete values (0 or 1).

Question-6. What is modulation?

Answer-6: Modulation is the process of encoding information onto a carrier signal for transmission.

Question-7. Name two common modulation techniques.

Answer-7: Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Frequency Modulation (FM).

Question-8. What is the Nyquist theorem?

Answer-8: The Nyquist theorem states that to accurately reconstruct a signal, the sampling rate must be at least twice the highest frequency component of the signal.

Question-9. What is the Shannon-Hartley theorem?

Answer-9: The Shannon-Hartley theorem provides a formula for calculating the maximum data rate (channel capacity) of a communication channel, considering the bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.

Question-10. What is noise in signal processing?

Answer-10: Noise refers to unwanted random fluctuations or disturbances that interfere with the original signal.

Question-11. How is signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) defined?

Answer-11: SNR is the ratio of the power of a signal to the power of background noise.

Question-12. What is meant by signal processing?

Answer-12: Signal processing involves manipulating signals to extract useful information or enhance their quality.

Question-13. What is filtering in signal processing?

Answer-13: Filtering is the process of removing or attenuating certain frequencies from a signal while preserving others.

Question-14. Define Fourier transform.

Answer-14: Fourier transform is a mathematical technique that decomposes a signal into its constituent frequencies.

Question-15. What is the purpose of sampling in signal processing?

Answer-15: Sampling is the process of converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal by measuring its amplitude at regular intervals.

Question-16. What is the difference between baseband and passband signals?

Answer-16: Baseband signals have frequencies close to zero, while passband signals have frequencies that are shifted from zero.

Question-17. What is the role of a demodulator in signal processing?

Answer-17: A demodulator extracts the original information from a modulated carrier signal.

Question-18. Define bandwidth in the context of signals.

Answer-18: Bandwidth refers to the range of frequencies occupied by a signal and determines the data capacity of a communication channel.

Question-19. What is the significance of signal-to-noise ratio in communication systems?

Answer-19: Signal-to-noise ratio determines the quality of communication by indicating the level of signal strength relative to background noise.

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