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Question-1. Explain PAM?
Answer-1: Pulse-amplitude modulation, acronym PAM.PAM, is a form of signal modulation where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses.
Question-2. Give example PAM?
Answer-2: Example: A two bit modulator (PAM-4) will take two bits at a time and will map the signal amplitude to one of four possible levels, for example -3 volts, -1 volt, 1 volt, and 3 volts.
Question-3. Where PAM is used?
Answer-3: Pulse-amplitude modulation is widely used in baseband transmission of digital data, with non-baseband applications having been largely superseded by pulse-code modulation, and, more recently, by pulse-position modulation.
Question-4. What is PPM?
Answer-4: Pulse-position modulation (PPM) is a form of signal modulation in which M message bits are encoded by transmitting a single pulse in one of 2M possible time-shifts. This is repeated every T seconds, such that the transmitted bit rate is M/T bits per second. It is primarily useful for optical communications systems, where there tends to be little or no multipath interference.
Question-5. Explain PWM?
Answer-5: Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is a commonly used technique for controlling power to inertial electrical devices, made practical by modern electronic power switches.
Question-6. Define Duty cycle?
Answer-6: The term duty cycle describes the proportion of 'on' time to the regular interval or 'period' of time; a low duty cycle corresponds to low power, because the power is off for most of the time. Duty cycle is expressed in percent, 100% being fully on.
Question-7. Explain principal of PWM?
Answer-7: Pulse-width modulation uses a rectangular pulse wave whose pulse width is modulated resulting in the variation of the average value of the waveform.
Question-8. what is the use of Delta modulation for PWM control?
Answer-8: The use of delta modulation for PWM control, the output signal is integrated, and the result is compared with limits, which correspond to a reference signal offset by a constant. Every time the integral of the output signal reaches one of the limits, the PWM signal changes state.
Question-9. what is the use of Delta sigma modulation for PWM control?
Answer-9: In delta-sigma modulation as a PWM control method, the output signal is subtracted from a reference signal to form an error signal. This error is integrated, and when the integral of the error exceeds the limits, the output changes state.
Question-10. compair PPM and M-FSK?
Answer-10: PPM and M-FSK systems with the same bandwidth, average power, and transmission rate of M/T bits per second have identical performance in an AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) channel. However, their performance differs greatly when comparing frequency-selective and frequency-flat fading channels. Whereas frequency-selective fading produces echoes that are highly disruptive for any of the M time-shifts used to encode PPM data, it selectively disrupts only some of the M possible frequency-shifts used to encode data for M-FSK. Conversely, frequency-flat fading is more disruptive for M-FSK than PPM, as all M of the possible frequency-shifts are impaired by fading, while the short duration of the PPM pulse means that only a few of the M time-shifts are heavily impaired by fading.
Question-11. What is the main advantage of PWM?
Answer-11: The main advantage of PWM is that power loss in the switching devices is very low. When a switch is off there is practically no current, and when it is on, there is almost no voltage drop across the switch. Power loss, being the product of voltage and current, is thus in both cases close to zero.
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