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Question-1. Define Radar?
Answer-1: Radar is an object-detection system which uses electromagnetic waves ? specifically radio waves ? to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain.
Question-2. When Practical radar was developed?
Answer-2: Practical radar was developed in secrecy during World War 2 by Britain and other nations.
Question-3. what is the modern uses of radar?
Answer-3: The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems; nautical radars to locate landmarks and other ships; aircraft anti-collision systems; ocean-surveillance systems, outer-space surveillance and rendezvous systems; meteorological precipitation monitoring; altimetry and flight-control systems; guided-missile target-locating systems; and ground-penetrating radar geological observations.
Question-4. what is the Principal of radar?
Answer-4: A radar system has a transmitter that emits radio waves called radar signals in predetermined directions. When these come into contact with an object they are usually reflected and/or scattered in many directions. Radar signals are reflected especially well by materials of considerable electrical conductivity?especially by most metals, by seawater, by wet land, and by wetlands. Some of these make the use of radar altimeters possible. The radar signals that are reflected back towards the transmitter are the desirable ones that make radar work. If the object is moving either closer or farther away, there is a slight change in the frequency of the radio waves, due to the Doppler effect.
Question-5. What is clutter?
Answer-5: Clutter refers to radio frequency (RF) echoes returned from targets which are uninteresting to the radar operators.
Question-6. What is MTI?
Answer-6: Moving target indication (MTI) is a mode of operation of a radar to discriminate a target against clutter.
Question-7. what is Doppler Effect?
Answer-7: The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift), named after Austrian physicist Christian Doppler who proposed it in 1842, is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a sirenor horn approaches, passes, and recedes from an observer. The received frequency is higher (compared to the emitted frequency) during the approach, it is identical at the instant of passing by, and it is lower during the recession.
Question-8. Give Principal of Doppler effect?
Answer-8: When the source of the waves is moving toward the observer, each successive wave crest is emitted from a position closer to the observer than the previous wave. Therefore each wave takes slightly less time to reach the observer than the previous wave. Therefore the time between the arrivals of successive wave crests is reduced, causing an increase in the frequency. While they are traveling, the distance between successive wave fronts is reduced; so the waves "bunch together". Conversely, if the source of waves is moving away from the observer, each wave is emitted from a position farther from the observer than the previous wave, so the arrival time between successive waves is increased, reducing the frequency. The distance between successive wave fronts is increased, so the waves "spread out".
Question-9. What is CW radar?
Answer-9: Continuous-wave radar system is a radar system where a known stable frequency continuous radio wave energy is transmitted and then received from any reflecting objects. The return frequencies are shifted away from the transmitted frequency based on the Doppler Effect if they are moving.
Question-10. what is the main advantage of the CW radars?
Answer-10: The main advantage of the CW radars is that they are not pulsed and simple to manufacture. They have no minimum or maximum range (although the broadcast power level imposes a practical limit on range) and maximize power on a target because they are always broadcasting.
Question-11. Can CW radar measure range?
Answer-11: Conventional CW radar cannot measure range because there is no basis for the measurement of the time delay.
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