Analog and Digital Signal Processing Viva Interview Questions with Answers

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Question-1. What is demodulation?

Answer-1: Demodulation is the process of extracting the original information signal from a modulated carrier signal at the receiver end of a communication system.

Question-2. What is noise in signal processing?

Answer-2: Noise refers to unwanted random variations or disturbances that interfere with the transmission or processing of signals, reducing the quality of the signal.

Question-3. What is digital signal processing used for?

Answer-3: Digital signal processing is used in various applications, including audio and video processing, telecommunications, medical imaging, radar, sonar, and control systems.

Question-4. What is signal processing?

Answer-4: Signal processing involves manipulating signals to extract useful information or enhance specific characteristics.

Question-5. What is an analog signal?

Answer-5: An analog signal is a continuous signal that varies smoothly over time, represented by a continuous waveform.

Question-6. What is a digital signal?

Answer-6: A digital signal is a discrete-time signal that is represented using a finite set of discrete values, typically binary numbers.

Question-7. What is the difference between analog and digital signal processing?

Answer-7: Analog signal processing deals with continuous signals, while digital signal processing (DSP) involves processing discrete-time signals represented by sequences of numbers.

Question-8. Why is it useful for communication systems to convert analog signals into digital form?

Answer-8: Converting analog signals into digital form is useful for communication systems because it enables noise reduction, efficient data storage, and easy manipulation through digital processing techniques. Additionally, digital signals can be transmitted over long distances with minimal loss of quality due to error detection and correction mechanisms.

Question-9. Explain the process of analog-to-digital conversion(ADC).

Answer-9: Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) transforms continuous analog signals into discrete digital values. The process involves three main steps: sampling, quantization, and encoding.

Question-10. What is sampling in signal processing?

Answer-10: Periodically measuring the amplitude of the analog signal at uniform intervals, called the sampling rate. Nyquist-Shannon theorem states that the sampling rate must be at least twice the highest frequency component in the signal to avoid aliasing.

Question-11. What is Quantization in signal processing?

Answer-11: Approximating sampled amplitudes by assigning them to a finite set of discrete levels, known as quantization levels. This introduces quantization error, which can be reduced by increasing the number of levels or using better algorithms like dithering.

Question-12. What is Encoding in signal processing?

Answer-12: Representing each quantized level with a unique binary code, typically using fixed-length binary numbers. The number of bits used determines the resolution of the ADC, with more bits providing higher accuracy and dynamic range.

Question-13. What is PCM? Describe its advantages and disadvanteges.

Answer-13: PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) is a method that samples analog signals at regular intervals and quantizes them into discrete digital values. Advantages include high fidelity, low noise, and ease of processing. Disadvantages are large bandwidth requirements and susceptibility to quantization errors.

Question-14. What is DPCM? Describe its advantages and disadvanteges.

Answer-14: DPCM (Differential Pulse Code Modulation) encodes the difference between consecutive samples instead of absolute values. This reduces redundancy and data size. Advantages include lower bandwidth requirements and better compression ratios. Disadvantages involve increased complexity and potential error propagation.

Question-15. What is DM? Describe its advantages and disadvanteges.

Answer-15: DM (Delta Modulation) is a simpler version of DPCM, encoding only the sign of the difference between consecutive samples. Advantages include simplicity, low computational complexity, and reduced bandwidth requirements. Disadvantages consist of poor performance in rapidly changing signals and higher noise levels.

Question-16. Describe the role of filters in signal processing.

Answer-16: Filters play a crucial role in signal processing by selectively allowing specific frequency components to pass through while attenuating others. They help eliminate noise, extract useful information, and shape the overall characteristics of signals.

Question-17. What is a Low pass filter? Describe its functions.

Answer-17: Low-pass filters allow frequencies below a certain cutoff point to pass through, effectively removing high-frequency noise or preserving low-frequency content. Applications include audio equalization, anti-aliasing, and smoothing data.

Question-18. What is a High pass filter? Describe its functions.

Answer-18: High-pass filters permit frequencies above a specified threshold, eliminating low-frequency noise or retaining high-frequency details. Uses involve edge detection in image processing, DC offset removal, and enhancing speech clarity.

Question-19. What is a Band pass filter? Describe its functions.

Answer-19: Band-pass filters transmit a particular range of frequencies, rejecting those outside this band. They are employed for isolating desired frequency bands in communication systems, tuning radio stations, and analyzing specific frequency components in signals.

Question-20. What is a Band stop filter? Describe its functions.

Answer-20: Band-stop filters, conversely, block a designated frequency range while passing all others. These filters find use in eliminating interference from known sources, such as power line hum in audio recordings or suppressing undesired frequency bands in telecommunication systems.

Question-21. What is the difference between FIR and IIR filters?

Answer-21: Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters have a finite impulse response, meaning their output depends only on past input values. In contrast, Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filters have feedback, causing their output to depend on both past input and output values.

Question-22. What is signal modulation?

Answer-22: Signal modulation is the process of encoding information onto a carrier signal by varying its amplitude, frequency, or phase, used in telecommunications and broadcasting.

Question-23. What is digital modulation?

Answer-23: Digital modulation involves modifying the characteristics of a carrier signal to represent digital data, enabling efficient transmission and reception of digital information.

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Analog and Digital Signal Processing Interview Questions and Answers in PDF form Online

Analog and Digital Signal Processing Questions with Answers

Analog and Digital Signal Processing Trivia MCQ Quiz

- Optical Fiber Communication
- LED Devices
- PAM PWM PPM Techniques
- Radar
- Cable TV System
- Satellite Receiver
- Satellite Dish Antenna
- Hall Effect Experiment
- Encoder and Decoder
- Digital Electronics
- Analog and Digital Signal Processing
- Control Systems
- Bode Plots
- Feedback Systems
- Laplace transform
- AutoCAD
- Electromagnetic Waves
- Fourier Transform
- Arduino
- Solid State Controlled Drives
- Solid State Switching Circuits
- BandPass Modulation Techniques
- Baseband Transmission
- Error Detection and Correction Codes
- Cyclic and Linear Block Codes
- Pulse Code Modulation PCM
- Signals and Noises
- Signals
- Time Division Multiplexing