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Question-1. What is young's modulus?

Answer-1: Young's modulus is defined as the ratio of longitudinal stress to longitudinal strain.

Question-2. What is a beam?

Answer-2: When the lengths of the rod of uniform cross section is very large compared to its breadth such that the shearing stress over any section of the rod can be neglected, the rod is called beam.

Question-3. How are longitudinal strain and stress produced in your experiment?

Answer-3: Due to depression, the upper or the concave side of the beam becomes smaller than the lower or the convex side of the beam. As a result, longitudinal strain is produced. The change in wave length of the beam. These forces will give rise to longitudinal stress.

Question-4. Which dimension- breath, thickness or length of the bar-should be measured very careful and why?

Answer-4: The thickness of the bar should be measured very carefully since its magnitude is small and it occurs in the expression ?E' in the power of three. An inaccuracy in the measurement of the thickness will produce the greatest proportional error in E.

Question-5. Why do you place the beam symmetrically on the knife edges?

Answer-5: To keep the reaction at the knife edges equal in conformity with the theory.

Question-6. Differentiate between Bar and column Types of beams.

Answer-6: Generally, beams run horizontally and span between columns, which are vertical, to support a load - like a floor or a roof.

Question-7. What is Shear centre?

Answer-7: A point on a line parallel to the axis of a beam through which any transverse force must be applied to avoid twisting of the section.

Question-8. What is elastic constants?

Answer-8: The elastic constants of a material describe its response to an applied stress or, conversely, the stress required to maintain a given deformation.

Question-9. What is Poisson's ratio?

Answer-9: Ratio of decrease in the thickness (lateral contraction) of a body being pulled (under a tensile load) to its increase in length (longitudinal extension).It is constant for a material, around 0.28 for ordinary steels.

Question-10. Relation between Bulk Modulus, Shear modulus and Young's modulus?

Answer-10: If youngs modulus = E, Shear modulus = G, Bulk Modulus = K and Poissons ratio = v then E = 3K(1-2v) E = 2G(1+v)

Question-11. Explain about modulus of rigidity

Answer-11: Modulus of Rigidity (or Shear Modulus) is the coefficient of elasticity for a shearing force. It is defined as "the ratio of shear stress to the displacement per unit sample length (shear strain)?.

Question-12. What is Strain energy?

Answer-12: The energy stored in a body due to deformation is called the strain energy.

Question-13. What is Resilience?

Answer-13: The property of a material that enables it to resume its original shape or position after being bent, stretched, or compressed; elasticity

Question-14. Define proof of resilience.

Answer-14: Proof resilience is the maximum strain energy that can be stored in a material without permanent deformation.

Question-15. Define modulus of resilience

Answer-15: The maximum mechanical energy stored per unit volume of material when it is stressed to its elastic limit.

Question-16. Explain Castigliano's Theorem.

Answer-16: The theorem that the component in a given direction of the deflection of the point of application of an external force on an elastic body is equal to the partial derivative of the work of deformation with respect to the component of the force in that direction. Also known as Castigliano's principle

Question-17. What is slenderness ratio?

Answer-17: The slenderness ratio is the ratio between the height or length of a structural element (such as a column, or strut) and the width or thickness of the element.

Question-18. When do we call the failure to be fatigue?

Answer-18: Fatigue Failures Occur due to the application of fluctuating stresses that is much lower than the stress required to cause failure during a single application of stress.

Question-19. Explain about buckling in a beam ?

Answer-19: Beam buckling is a distortion in shape that occurs when the load on the beam is greater than the beam is designed to carry.

Question-20. What is elastic limited?

Answer-20: The maximum value of stress beyond which stress is not proportional to strain. (Beyond elastic limit strain is rapid).

Question-21. Define Stress ?

Answer-21: The restoring force per unit area set up inside the body which is under the influence of deforming force.

Stress (inside the body) = deforming force (externally applied)

Question-22. Define Strain ?

Answer-22: The ratio of change in length (L), volume (V) or shape to the original length (L) volume (V) or shape.

l / L = longitudinal strain

v / V = cubical strain

Question-23. What are the units of Stress ?

Answer-23: Newton/meter^{2} or dynes/cm^{2}

Question-24. What are the units of Strain ?

Answer-24: No units since if the ratio between the similar quantities

Question-25. What are the units of Young?s modulus ?

Answer-25: N/m^{2} or dynes/cm^{2}

Question-26. What is the function of second wire?

Answer-26: To eliminate the error due to change in temperature.

Question-27. Which one is more elastic, foam or iron?

Answer-27: Iron, because iron can regain its original shape or length more easily than foam.

Question-28. Gases and liquids have elasticity or not?

Answer-28: Yes, they have.

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