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Question-51. What happens to a wave if it crosses a boundary at an angle and speeds up?
Answer-51: It bends away from the normal
Question-52. What happens to the wavelength and frequency of a wave when it is refracted?
Answer-52: The wavelength changes, but the frequency stays the same
Question-53. How can radio waves be produced?
Answer-53: Oscillations in electrical circuits
Question-54. What is the object called in which charges oscillate to create the radio waves?
Answer-54: A transmitter
Question-55. What is the frequency of the waves produced by a transmitter the same as?
Answer-55: The frequency of the alternating current in the electrical circuit
Question-56. What happens when transmitted radio waves reach a receiver?
Answer-56: They are absorbed
Question-57. What happens to the energy that is being carried by the radio waves when it reaches a receiver?
Answer-57: It is transferred to the electrons in the material of the receiver and causes them to oscillate at the same frequency as the radio wave that generated it
Question-58. How are electromagnetic waves related to atoms and nuclei?
Answer-58: Changes in atoms and the nuclei of atoms can result in electromagnetic waves being generated or absorbed
Question-59. Where do gamma rays originate from?
Answer-59: Changes in the nucleus of an atom
Question-60. What is radiation dose?
Answer-60: Radiation dose is a measure of the risk of harm resulting from an exposure of the body to the radiation.
Question-61. What are the units of radiation dose?
Answer-61: Sieverts, Sv
Question-62. How many millisieverts (mSv) make up 1 sievert (Sv)?
Answer-62: 1000 millisieverts (mSv) = 1 sievert (Sv)
Question-63. What effect do ultraviolet waves have on skin?
Answer-63: They can cause it to age prematurely and they increase the risk of skin cancer.
Question-64. Which types of EM radiation are ionising?
Answer-64: X-rays and gamma rays
Question-65. What effects can ionising radiation have on the body?
Answer-65: They can cause mutation of genes and cancer
Question-66. What are the two different types of lens?
Answer-66: Convex and concave
Question-67. What is the definition of converging and which lens does this apply to?
Answer-67: Brought together, convex
Question-68. What is the definition of diverging and which lens does this apply to?
Answer-68: Spread out, concave
Question-69. How do convex lenses form an image?
Answer-69: Parallel rays of light are brought together (converge) at the principal focus
Question-70. Where is the principle focus of a convex lens?
Answer-70: Where rays hitting the lens parallel to the axis all meet
Question-71. Where is the principle focus of a concave lens?
Answer-71: The point where rays hitting the lens parallel to the axis appear to all come from. You have to trace them back until they appear to meet up.
Question-72. What is the focal length?
Answer-72: The distance from the lens to the principal focus
Question-73. What is a real image?
Answer-73: One that can be shown on a screen
Question-74. What is a virtual image?
Answer-74: One that does not exist, and only appears to
Question-75. What can you not do with a virtual image?
Answer-75: Project it onto a screen
Question-76. What type of image does a convex (converging) lens produce?
Answer-76: Real or virtual
Question-77. What type of image does a concave (diverging) lens produce?
Answer-77: Virtual only
Question-78. What is the equation from the Physics equation sheet for magnification?
Answer-78: Magnification = image height / object height
Question-79. What are the units for image height and object height?
Answer-79: mm or cm
Question-80. What are the units of magnification?
Answer-80: Magnification is a ratio and so has no units
Question-81. How does the distance the object is from a convex lens affect the image?
Answer-81: An object at 2F will produce a real, inverted image the same size as the object An object between F and 2F will produce a real, inverted image that is bigger than the object An object nearer than F will make a virtual image the right way up, bigger than the object
Question-82. What is the difference between the colours in the visible light spectrum?
Answer-82: They each have their own narrow band of wavelength and frequency
Question-83. What is the word for reflection from a smooth surface in a single direction?
Answer-83: Specular reflection
Question-84. What is the word for reflection from a rough surface?
Answer-84: Diffuse reflection
Question-85. How do colour filters work?
Answer-85: By absorbing certain wavelengths (and colour) and transmitting other wavelengths (and colour)
Question-86. What is an opaque object?
Answer-86: An object in which no light is transmitted
Question-87. What determines the colour of an opaque object?
Answer-87: By which wavelengths of light are more strongly reflected
Question-88. What happens to the colours hitting an opaque object that are not reflected?
Answer-88: They are absorbed
Question-89. When does an object appear white?
Answer-89: When all wavelengths of light are reflected equally
Question-90. When does an object appear black?
Answer-90: When all wavelengths of light are absorbed
Question-91. What is the definition of transparent?
Answer-91: An object that is see through
Question-92. What is the definition of translucent?
Answer-92: An object that is partially see through
Question-93. What words are used to describe objects which transmit light?
Answer-93: Transparent or translucent
Question-94. What radiation do all objects, no matter what temperature, emit & absorb?
Question-95. What can be said about the amount of radiation a hot body emits?
Answer-95: The hotter the body, the more infrared radiation it radiates in a given time
Question-96. What is a perfect black body?
Answer-96: An object that absorbs all of the radiation incident on it. No radiation is reflected or transmitted.
Question-97. What type of object is the best possible emitter of radiation?
Answer-97: A perfect black body
Question-98. What can be said about the rate that an object absorbs and emits radiation?
Answer-98: A body at constant temperature is absorbing radiation at the same rate as it is emitting radiation.
Question-99. When does the temperature of a body increase?
Answer-99: The temperature of a body increases when the body absorbs radiation faster than it emits radiation
Question-100. What factors affect the temperature of the Earth?
Answer-100: The rates of absorption and emission of radiation; Reflection of radiation into space
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