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Question-1. What is viscosity in fluid mechanics?
Answer-1: Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. Viscosity is a fluid property in which an internal frictional force acts while the fluid is in motion and resist the relative motion.
Question-2. How is viscosity typically measured?
Answer-2: Viscosity is measured using a viscometer or viscosimeter.
Question-3. Define the coefficient of viscosity?
Answer-3: It is the tangential force necessary to keep a unit velocity gradient amid two layers each of unit area.
Question-4. What are the SI units of viscosity?
Answer-4: The SI units of viscosity are Pascal-seconds (Pa·s) or N·s/m2.
Question-5. Explain the concept of dynamic viscosity?
Answer-5: Dynamic viscosity measures a fluid's internal resistance to shear forces when it flows. It is represented by the symbol η (eta).
Question-6. Define fluid?
Answer-6: Fluid is a substance which begins to flow when external force is applied on it.
Question-7. Give example for fluids?
Answer-7: Liquids and gases.
Question-8. What is kinematic viscosity, and how is it calculated?
Answer-8: Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of dynamic viscosity (η) to the density (ρ) of a fluid. It is calculated using the formula: ? = η / ρ.
Question-9. Why is it important to measure viscosity in various applications?
Answer-9: Viscosity measurements are crucial for quality control, process optimization, and understanding fluid behavior in industries like manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and food processing.
Question-10. Name a common instrument used to measure viscosity in a laboratory?
Answer-10: A common instrument is the Ostwald viscometer.
Question-11. What is Stoke's formula?
Answer-11: F=6πrηv , Where r = radius, η = fluid velocity, v = sphere velocity
Question-12. What is meant by Reynold's number?
Answer-12: Rn=(ρVL)/μ , Where ρ = density, V = flow speed, L = linear dimension, μ = dynamic velocity
Question-13. Give the Newton's equation for viscous force?
Answer-13: F= -ηA(dvx/dz)
Question-14. What is the principle behind the capillary tube viscometer?
Answer-14: The capillary tube viscometer measures viscosity by recording the time it takes for a liquid to flow through a narrow tube under gravity.
Question-15. Define shear rate?
Answer-15: Shear rate is the rate at which adjacent layers of fluid move with respect to each other.
Question-16. What is Newton's law of viscosity?
Answer-16: Newton's law of viscosity states that the shear stress in a fluid is directly proportional to the velocity gradient and the dynamic viscosity (η).
Question-17. How does temperature affect the viscosity of most liquids?
Answer-17: Viscosity generally decreases with increasing temperature for most liquids.
Question-18. What is meant by terminal velocity?
Answer-18: Terminal Velocity is defined as the maximum constant velocity attained by a body when falling freely in a viscous medium.
Question-19. Describe the rheological behavior of a Newtonian fluid.
Answer-19: A Newtonian fluid has a constant viscosity regardless of shear rate or stress.
Question-20. What is a non-Newtonian fluid?
Answer-20: A non-Newtonian fluid's viscosity varies with shear rate or stress.
Question-21. Provide an example of a non-Newtonian fluid?
Answer-21: Ketchup is a common example of a non-Newtonian fluid.
Question-22. How is viscosity measured for non-Newtonian fluids?
Answer-22: Non-Newtonian fluids are often characterized using rheometers or rotational viscometers that can vary shear rate.
Question-23. What is the unit of kinematic viscosity in the CGS system?
Answer-23: In the CGS system, kinematic viscosity is expressed in stokes (St).
Question-24. How does the viscosity of gases typically compare to that of liquids?
Answer-24: Gases generally have much lower viscosities than liquids.
Question-25. Explain the concept of absolute viscosity?
Answer-25: Absolute viscosity, also known as dynamic viscosity, quantifies a fluid's internal resistance to shear stress. It is measured in poise (P) in the CGS system.
Question-26. What is the significance of the Reynolds number in fluid dynamics?
Answer-26: The Reynolds number (\(Re\)) is used to predict the flow regime of a fluid and determine whether it is laminar or turbulent.
Question-27. How can viscosity measurements be useful in industries like petroleum or automotive engineering?
Answer-27: Viscosity measurements are crucial for quality control and formulation of lubricants, fuels, and engine oils in industries like petroleum and automotive engineering.
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