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Question-1. What orbital bodies are found in our solar system?
Answer-1: Planet; dwarf planets; moons; artificial satellites
Question-2. What defines a planet?
Answer-2: A body that orbits a star, massive enough for its own gravity to make it round
Question-3. What defines a moon?
Answer-3: A natural object which orbits a planet
Question-4. What galaxy is our solar system part of?
Answer-4: Milky Way galaxy
Question-5. How is a star formed?
Answer-5: From clouds of dust and gas drawn together by gravity, which caused fusion reactions to occur
Question-6. What is a nebula?
Answer-6: A cloud of dust and gas
Question-7. What is a protostar?
Answer-7: When dust and gas are pulled together by gravity
Question-8. When does a protostar become a main sequence star?
Answer-8: When gravity is strong enough for nuclear fusion to happen, releasing energy
Question-9. What is the life cycle of a star that is a similar size to our sun?
Answer-9: Nebula; protostar; main sequence star; red giant; white dwarf; black dwarf
Question-10. What is the life cycle of a star that is much bigger than our sun?
Answer-10: Nebula; protostar; main sequence star; red super giant; supernova; neutron star or black dwarf
Question-11. What is nuclear fusion?
Answer-11: When two smaller nuclei fuse together to form one larger nucleus, releasing energy from the reaction
Question-12. What elements are fused together during the main sequence stage of a star life cycle?
Answer-12: Hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei
Question-13. Why are stars ?stable? during the main sequence stage?
Answer-13: The outward pressure caused by fusion is balanced by the force of gravity pulling everything inwards
Question-14. What causes main sequence stars to expand and turn in red giants / super giants?
Answer-14: Hydrogen runs out and heavier elements are formed
Question-15. Which elements can be created in a star?
Answer-15: Elements up to iron
Question-16. What is a red giant?
Answer-16: A cooler, bigger star that is formed after hydrogen has run out, and heavier elements are being formed
Question-17. What is a white dwarf?
Answer-17: What is left behind when a star ejects its outer layer of dust and gas to leave behind a hot, dense solid core
Question-18. What is a black dwarf?
Answer-18: What is left behind as a white dwarf cools down and no longer emits a significant amount of energy
Question-19. What is a supernova?
Answer-19: The explosion of a massive star
Question-20. What elements are formed in a supernova?
Answer-20: Elements heavier than iron
Question-21. What is a neutron star?
Answer-21: What is left behind after a supernova has thrown the outer layers of dust and gas into space leaving a very dense core
Question-22. What is a black hole?
Answer-22: What is left behind after the supernova of a massive enough star that is so dense, not even light can escape the gravitational pull
Question-23. What shape is the shape of an ?orbit??
Question-24. What is an artificial satellite?
Answer-24: Something man-made which is in orbit of the Earth
Question-25. What is the force that keeps something in orbit?
Question-26. In a circular orbit, how can there be changing velocity if the speed is constant?
Answer-26: It is constantly changing direction to remain in the circular orbit
Question-27. What must also be true if an object is constantly changing velocity in circular orbit?
Answer-27: It is also constantly accelerating
Question-28. What happens to the speed of an orbiting object if the radius of its orbit decreases?
Answer-28: It speeds up
Question-29. Why does the speed of an object change depending on how close it is to the thing it is orbiting?
Answer-29: The force of gravity changes so it needs to speed up/slow down to maintain a stable orbit
Question-30. What is the Doppler effect?
Answer-30: The observed change in frequency of the waves emitted by a moving source
Question-31. What is red-shift?
Answer-31: The observed increase of wavelength of light waves coming from distant galaxies
Question-32. What does red-shift tell us about the universe?
Answer-32: That the light source is moving away from us, therefore the universe must be expanding
Question-33. What does it show us that more distant galaxies have greater red-shifts than nearer ones?
Answer-33: More distant galaxies are moving away faster than nearer ones
Question-34. What is the big bang theory?
Answer-34: The universe began from a very small region that was extremely hot and dense
Question-35. How does observed red-shift support the Big Bang theory?
Answer-35: The universe is expanding, so therefore must have once been much smaller
Question-36. What have scientists observed since 1998 to suggest the rate of universe expansion is increasing?
Answer-36: By observing supernovae it shows that distant galaxies are moving away from us faster and faster
Question-37. Why is it important for scientists to keep observing changes in the universe?
Answer-37: Observations allow them to obtain data, which can then either confirm or reject current theories
Question-38. What do scientists currently think the universe is made up of?
Answer-38: Dark matter and dark energy
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