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Question-1. What is the aim of this experiment?
Answer-1: To determine the position of cardinal points of a system of single convex lens and also a combination of two convex lens.
Question-2. What are cardinal points in an optical system?
Answer-2: The principal points and nodal points together called cardinal points in an optical system.
Question-3. Define focal points, principal points and nodal points?
Answer-3: Principal Points: The principal points are two hypothetical planes in a lens system at which all the refraction can be considered to happen.
Focal points The point on the axis of a lens or mirror to which parallel rays of light converge or from which they appear to diverge after refraction or reflection.
Nodal points The nodal point of a lens is the point inside a lens where light paths cross before being focused onto a axis of lens.
Question-4. What is a nodal slide?
Answer-4: The nodal slide is an instrument used for locating and measuring the cardinal points of a lens or a system of lenses.
Question-5. What do you mean by co-axial system of lenses ?
Answer-5: A combination of two or more than two lenses with same principal axis is called the co-axial lens system.
Question-6. What are nodal points?
Answer-6: The two conjugate points N1 and N2 on the principal axis for which angular magnification is +1 are called the nodal points (The incident rays of light at the first nodal point emerge after refraction from the second nodal point N2 in a direction parallel to the incident rays.
Question-7. Which part of your apparatus is called the nodal slide ?
Answer-7: The part on which the lenses are mounted and which is rotated about the vertical axis .
Question-8. In your experiment how will you test that the image on cross-slit is the required image?
Answer-8: If the image on the cross slit gets displaced on turning the plane mirror slightly, the image is said to required image .
Question-9. In your experiment, if you move the plane mirror to and fro on the optical bench, will the image on
Answer-9: No, the image on cross slit will not be displayed.
Question-10. What is the meaning of focal length?
Answer-10: Focal length is the distance between the center of a convex lens or a concave mirror and the focal point of the lens or mirror ? the point where parallel rays of light meet, or converge.
Question-11. What is meant by circle of confusion?
Answer-11: When a lens is defocused, a object point gets rendered as a small circle, called the circle of confusion. (Ignoring diffraction) If the circle of confusion is small enough, the image will look sharp.
Question-12. What is hyper focal distance?
Answer-12: The hyper focal distance is the closest distance at which a lens can be focused while keeping objects at infinity acceptably sharp.
Question-13. What are aberrations?
Answer-13: An optical aberration is a departure of the performance of an optical system from the predictions of paraxial optics.
Question-14. What is diffraction?
Answer-14: When a beam of light passes through any aperture it spreads out. This effect limits how sharp a lens can possibly be.
Question-15. What is the nodal bench?
Answer-15: A optical test bench with instrumentation which generally includes a collimator, microscope, positioners and a nodal slide used to rotate a lens about its second nodal point. The nodal bench is used to determine the cardinal points of a lens so that measurements of focal length, back focal length, field curvature, distortion, magnification, and blur pattern can be carried out.
Question-16. What is the principal of nodal slide experiment?
Answer-16: When a parallel beam of light is incident on a convergent lens system, its image is formed on a screen (or mirror) placed in its second focal plane. Now if the lens system is rotated about a vertical axis passing through the second nodal point, there is no displacement of the image.
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