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Question-1. Why is water alkaline?
Answer-1: It is due to the presence of hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate ions.
Question-2. Can you explain the steps involved in performing the Gran titration method for alkalinity determinat
Answer-2: Sure, the steps typically involve:
1. Preparing a water sample of known volume.
2. Adding a few drops of a pH indicator (methyl orange) to the sample, causing it to turn pink.
3. Titrating the sample with a standard solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) while stirring.
4. Continuously monitoring the color change until the solution turns from pink to orange.
5. Recording the volume of acid required to reach the endpoint.
6. Calculating the alkalinity based on the volume of acid used and the concentration of the acid.
Question-3. How can alkalinity measurements be used in environmental and water quality assessment?
Answer-3: Alkalinity measurements can be used to assess the water's ability to resist pH changes and, by extension, its ecological health. In natural water bodies, alkalinity helps maintain stable pH levels, which is crucial for aquatic life. It can also provide insights into the presence of carbonate and bicarbonate ions, which are important for buffering against acid rain and pollution.
Question-4. What are the common methods used to determine the alkalinity of water?
Answer-4: There are several methods to determine the alkalinity of water, with the most common ones being titration methods. These include the Gran method and the pH titration method. Other methods include the methyl orange method and the pH colorimetric method.
Question-5. What is the colour of phenolphthalein in acid and alkaline medium?
Answer-5: Colourless in acid and pink in alkaline.
Question-6. What is the role of methyl orange indicator in determining alkalinity?
Answer-6: Total alkalinity is determined by using methyl orange.
Question-7. What is alkalinity, and why is it important to measure in water?
Answer-7: Alkalinity is a measure of the water's capacity to neutralize acids or its ability to resist a decrease in pH. It is essential to measure alkalinity in water because it helps assess the water's buffering capacity, which is crucial for maintaining stable pH levels in natural water bodies. Monitoring alkalinity is important in environmental science, as it provides insights into the water's ability to resist changes in acidity due to pollution or natural processes.
Question-8. Describe the principle of the Gran titration method for alkalinity determination.
Answer-8: The Gran titration method is based on the principle of titrating the water sample with a strong acid (usually sulfuric acid, H2SO4) to a specific endpoint, indicated by a color change due to the addition of a pH indicator (usually methyl orange). The amount of acid required to reach this endpoint is proportional to the water's alkalinity.
Question-9. What are some factors that can affect the accuracy of alkalinity measurements?
Answer-9: Several factors can affect the accuracy of alkalinity measurements, including:
The choice and quality of the pH indicator used.
Contamination of glassware or the sample.
Incomplete mixing during titration.
Incorrect calibration of equipment.
Presence of interfering substances in the water sample.
Question-10. What are the ions determined by phenolphthalein?
Answer-10: Hydroxide ion and half of carbonate ion.
Question-11. What is the endpoint in the Gran titration method, and how is it determined?
Answer-11: The endpoint in the Gran titration method is the pH at which the solution changes from pink to orange. The pink color indicates the presence of hydroxide ions (OH-) due to the water's alkalinity. The endpoint is determined by monitoring the color change using a pH indicator like methyl orange. The endpoint is reached when the pink color disappears, and the solution turns orange.
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